Micronutrients, functions, deficiency, personalisation
Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. Macronutrients, on the other hand, include proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Humans must obtain micronutrients from food since your body can mostly not produce vitamins and minerals.
Vitamins and minerals are vital for growth, immune function, brain development, and many other important functions. On the other hand too high daily intake doses of certain vitamins, especially Vit C and Vit E have been linked to the increased lifespan of certain groups of consumers in older publications, in more recent publications a shortened life span was claimed in general >>>
In general, many scientists recommend the use of vitamins derived from natural sources rather the use of synthetically derived products, e.g because of a more diverse, adequate distribution of subtypes of the vitamin.
Antioxidants may protect against cell damage that has been associated with certain diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s and heart disease >>>
Reduction of oxidative (ROS- induced ) damage of cells structures such as mitochondria, telomers, lipids, epigenetic system, DNA is a central dogma in molecular biology >>>
However, more recently it becomes clear that small amounts of different form of tress is even important for health: The concept of mitohormesis claims that reactive oxygen species at a low concentration act as signaling molecules to initiate a cascade of cellular events that ultimately protect the cells from harmful effects. The activation of the mitohormetic response even increases lifespan in different animal models >>>
Research has also linked an adequate dietary intake of vitamins A to the development of certain cancers >>>
Getting enough of some vitamins may also help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. A review of seven studies found that adequate dietary intake of vitamins E, C and A is associated reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s >>>
Research has also linked low blood levels of selenium to a higher risk of various diseases >>>
Also evidences are gathering that Vitamin D supplementation decreases risk of infection with Covid-19 and lowers death rates of Covid-19 infections. >>>
Most healthy adults can get an adequate amount of micronutrients from a balanced diet, but there are some common nutrient deficiencies that affect certain populations.
Vitamin D: Approximately 77% of Americans are deficient in vitamin D, mostly due to lack of sun exposure .
Vitamin B12: Vegans and vegetarians may develop vitamin B12 deficiency from refraining from animal products. Elderly individuals are also at risk due to decreased absorption with age.
Vitamin A: The diets of women and children in developing countries often lack adequate vitamin A.
Iron: Deficiency of this mineral is common among preschool children, menstruating women and vegans .
Calcium: Close to 22% and 10% of men and women over 50, respectively, don’t get enough calcium.
Personalisation of supplementation
Individual differences in nutritional and lifestyle behavior, in bioavailability and metabolisms, may explain the considerable variability in individual levels of vitamin concentrations in blood or even deficiencies. Unguided supplementation with products on the other hand may result in adverse health effects. This indicated that case careful analysis of blood levels of micronutrients, nutrition and lifestyle, work, personal forms of stress, as well as analysis of potentially established dangerous effects on the molecular mechanism of health ( see hallmarks of aging >>>) needs to result in a personalised regime of supplementation with micronutrients.
Vitamins and Minerals
Water-soluble vitamins, with some of their functions:
Vitamin B1 (thiamine): Helps convert nutrients into energy.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): Necessary for energy production, cell function and fat metabolism.
Vitamin B3 (niacin): Drives the production of energy from food.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): Necessary for fatty acid synthesis
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): Helps your body release sugar from stored carbohydrates for energy and create red blood cells .
Vitamin B7 (biotin): Plays a role in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose.
Vitamin B9 (folate): Important for proper cell division.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): Necessary for red blood cell formation and proper nervous system and brain function.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): Required for the creation of neurotransmitters and collagen, the main protein in your skin.
Fat-soluble vitamins are:
Vitamin A: Necessary for proper vision and organ function .
Vitamin D: Promotes proper immune function and assists in calcium absorption and bone growth.
Vitamin E: Assists immune function and acts as an antioxidant that protects cells.
Vitamin K: Required for blood clotting and proper bone development.
Macro Minerals and some of their functions are:
Calcium: Necessary for proper structure and function of bones and teeth. Assists in muscle function and blood vessel contraction .
Phosphorus: Part of bone and cell membrane structure .
Magnesium: Assists with over 300 enzyme reactions, including regulation of blood pressure
Sodium: Electrolyte that aids fluid balance and maintenance of blood pressure .
Chloride: Often found in combination with sodium. Helps maintain fluid balance and is used to make digestive juices.
Potassium: Electrolyte that maintains fluid status in cells and helps with nerve transmission and muscle function .
Sulfur: Part f every living tissue and contained in the amino acids methionine and cysteine.
Iron: Helps provide oxygen to muscles and assists in the creation of certain hormones (28).
Manganese: Assists in carbohydrate, amino acid and cholesterol metabolism
Copper: Required for connective tissue formation, as well as normal brain and nervous system function.
Zinc: Necessary for normal growth, immune function and wound healing (31).
Iodine: Assists in thyroid regulation.
Fluoride: Necessary for the development of bones and teeth.
Selenium: Important for thyroid health, reproduction and defense against oxidative damage.
For more information see >>>
Recommended daily intake, RDA values, and info gives: >>>
Ways for analysis based personalized Micro Nutrients
Individualised, serious analysis -based personal formulations of micronutrients are difficult to obtain.
Blood or urine- analysis based personalised preparations of micronutrients of high quality and high tech stable formulation are recommended >>>
Molecular analysis of health and healthy aging relevant mechanisms >>>